Mitigate and Adapt. A Global Stocktake Analysis

Adaptation and mitigation are the two main themes addressed in the Global Stocktake. Photo by Kiara Worth (UNFCCC)

Choose your reading level:

STANDARD

Mitigate and Adapt. A Global Stocktake Analysis

Written by Daniele Savietto e Rafael Correia

The Global Stocktake, which reviews global progress in the fight against climate change, has analysed the mitigation and adaptation processes underway. Find out what needs to be done to meet the Paris Agreement.

Climate change mitigation is one of the most important issues today and is therefore included in the global stocktake.

Mitigation in the context of climate change refers to actions and strategies to reduce or minimise greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions into the atmosphere, thereby slowing the rate of global warming and its adverse effects on the Earth’s climate. These actions aim to limit the amount of heat trapped in the atmosphere, thereby helping to stabilise the climate and avoid the most severe consequences of climate change.

The urgency of mitigation to avoid the worst impacts of these changes cannot therefore be underestimated and is a fundamental part of the response to climate change, as underlined by the Global Stocktake:

            1 – Speed and depth: Limiting global temperature rise to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels, as set out in the Paris Agreement, requires deep, rapid, and sustained reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. This will require a radical transformation of energy systems, transport, agriculture, and industry worldwide.

            2 – Fairness and equity: Mitigation actions must be fair and equitable, considering the different responsibilities and historical capabilities of countries. More developed countries have a greater responsibility because of their past emissions, while developing countries need financial and technological support to make the transition to a low-carbon economy.

                        3 – Transforming industry and energy: The decarbonisation of industry and the energy sector is one of the biggest mitigation challenges. This involves deploying low-carbon technologies, improving energy efficiency, and moving to large-scale renewable energy.

Global mitigation opportunities             

1 – Just transitions: Just transitions, which take into account the socio-economic impacts of mitigation actions, offer opportunities for job creation and economic growth. This includes the development of renewable energy industries, energy efficiency and ecosystem restoration.          

2 – Technological innovation: The search for innovative technological solutions plays a key role in global mitigation. This includes the development of carbon capture and storage technologies, clean energy, and sustainable transport.           

3 – Ecosystem conservation: Preserving and restoring natural ecosystems, such as forests and oceans, not only reduces greenhouse gas emissions, but also plays a key role in limiting global temperature rise.

Global climate change mitigation is a complex but essential challenge to address the threats posed by climate change. Challenges include the need for rapid and far-reaching action and the search for fairness and equity in the distribution of mitigation efforts. But there are also important opportunities, such as just transitions, technological innovation, and ecosystem conservation.

Adaptation:

In the context of climate change, adaptation refers to a range of policies, strategies and measures that help societies, communities, and ecosystems cope with the adverse impacts of climate change that are already occurring or are unavoidable in the future. The central aim of adaptation is to reduce the vulnerability and increase the resilience of people and natural systems to climate change.

The challenges include:

1 – Inequality in adaptation: Global adaptation is currently facing significant challenges in terms of inequality and uneven distribution of adaptation efforts. Uneven progress is observed across countries and communities, highlighting the need for a more equitable and needs-sensitive approach.

2- Adaptation financing gap: A significant adaptation financing gap is identified, with estimates in the order of US$ 194.366 million per year. It is essential that this gap is urgently addressed to ensure that adaptation efforts are effective. The commitment to double funding by 2025 is a step in the right direction, but even greater scale is needed.

3– Need for capacity and resources: Increasing the capacity and resources of developing countries is a key element for effective adaptation, especially for those that are particularly vulnerable. The development and implementation of National Adaptation Plans (NAPs) stand out as important means to achieve this goal.

Opportunities in global adaptation

1 – Just transitions: Adaptation can be an opportunity to promote just and inclusive transitions, creating jobs and stimulating economic growth. This includes the development of sectors such as renewable energy, energy efficiency and ecosystem restoration.

2 – Technological innovation: The search for innovative technological solutions plays a key role in global adaptation, enabling more effective and sustainable responses to the challenges posed by climate change.

3 – Protection of natural ecosystems: Conservation and restoration of natural ecosystems, such as forests and oceans, are considered important adaptation strategies. Ecosystems play a crucial role in protecting against extreme weather events and in building resilience.

Means of implementation:

Climate action is a global priority, but its realisation depends on a key component: the means of implementation. Without adequate finance and effective action, achieving the goals of the Paris Agreement will remain a major challenge.

The development of affordable, large-scale finance is a prerequisite for the full and effective implementation of climate plans, including Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and National Adaptation Plans (NAPs). This challenge is particularly critical for developing countries.

While we have seen progress in mobilising climate finance, we are still far from meeting all pledges. The commitment to provide $100 billion per year by 2020 is a target that has not yet been fully met.

Moreover, scaling up climate finance does not mean relying solely on public sources. Seeking guarantees and blended finance, issuing green bonds and innovative instruments are strategies that can further boost financing efforts. Public finance has a crucial role to play and can act as a catalyst to attract private investment in the low-carbon economy.

The need for a comprehensive reform of the international financial system, including its governance, cannot be underestimated. A reformed international financial architecture could be the key to better supporting global investment in climate action and sustainable development. Debt reform is also a key element of this debate, as it avoids adding to the debt burden of developing countries.

 In addition to finance, means of implementation include technology development and transfer, capacity building and innovation. Knowledge sharing and capacity building play a key role in countries’ ability to effectively implement climate action.

In short, the means of implementation are the foundation on which climate action is built. As we work to address climate change, it is essential that all countries, organisations, and institutions work together to ensure that the necessary financial, technological, and capacity-building resources are in place to achieve a more sustainable and climate-resilient future.

complementary activities

Adaptation vs. Mitigation Climate Change Solutions
The Climate Change Dictionary | What Is Climate Finance?
"Adapting to a changing climate". Portuguese version

EASY

Mitigate and Adapt. A Global Stocktake Analysis

Written by Daniele Savietto e Rafael Correia

The Global Stocktake, which reviews global progress in the fight against climate change, has analysed the mitigation and adaptation processes underway. Find out what needs to be done to meet the Paris Agreement.

Climate change mitigation is one of the most important issues of the day and is therefore included in the Global Stocktake.

Mitigation, in the context of climate change, refers to actions and strategies taken to reduce or minimise greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions into the atmosphere and thus slow the rate of global warming and its negative impacts on the Earth’s climate. These actions aim to limit the amount of heat retained in the atmosphere, helping to stabilise the climate and avoid the most serious consequences of climate change.

The urgency of mitigation to avoid the worst impacts of these changes cannot therefore be underestimated and is a fundamental part of the response to climate change, and the Global Stocktake emphasises the need for speed and depth to limit global temperature rise to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels.

It also stresses that mitigation actions must be fair and equitable, taking into account countries’ different historical responsibilities and capabilities. And that decarbonising industry and the energy sector is one of the biggest mitigation challenges. This implies applying low-carbon technologies, increasing energy efficiency, and transitioning to large-scale renewable energy sources.

Adaptation:

In the context of climate change, adaptation refers to a range of policies, strategies and measures that help societies, communities, and ecosystems cope with the adverse impacts of climate change that are already occurring or are unavoidable in the future. The central objective of adaptation is to reduce the vulnerability and increase the resilience of people and natural systems to climate change.

The urgency of adaptation is emphasised as a critical response to climate change that is already underway.

The challenges include:

1 – Inequality in adaptation: Global adaptation currently faces significant challenges in terms of inequality and uneven distribution of adaptation efforts. Progress is uneven across countries and communities, highlighting the need for a more equitable and needs-based approach.

2- Adaptation financing gap: A significant adaptation finance gap is identified, estimated to be in the order of US$194,366 million per year. This gap needs to be addressed urgently to ensure that adaptation efforts are effective. The commitment to double funding by 2025 is a step in the right direction, but more is needed.

3- Capacity and resource needs: Increasing the capacity and resources of developing countries is a key element for effective adaptation, especially for those that are most vulnerable. The development and implementation of National Adaptation Plans (NAPs) stands out as an important means to achieve this goal.

Means of implementation:

Climate action is a global priority, but its realisation depends on a key component: the means of implementation. Without adequate financing and effective action, achieving the goals of the Paris Agreement will remain a major challenge.

It is undeniable that mobilising financial resources is one of the essential pillars for tackling climate change. However, a revolution in the way we mobilise climate finance is needed to meet the commitments set out in the Paris Agreement. This requires not only a substantial increase in quantity, but also a significant improvement in quality and effectiveness.

The development of affordable, large-scale finance is a prerequisite for the full and effective implementation of climate plans, including Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and National Adaptation Plans (NAPs). This challenge is particularly critical for developing countries.

While we have seen progress in mobilising climate finance, we are still far from meeting all pledges. The commitment to provide $100 billion per year by 2020 is a target that has not yet been fully met.

Moreover, scaling up climate finance does not mean relying solely on public sources. Seeking guarantees and blended finance, issuing green bonds and innovative instruments are strategies that can further boost financing efforts. Public finance has a crucial role to play and can act as a catalyst to attract private investment in the low-carbon economy.

 In addition to finance, the means of implementation include technology development and transfer, capacity building and innovation.

In short, delivery mechanisms are the foundation on which climate action is built. As we work to address climate change, it is essential that all countries, organisations and institutions work together to ensure that the necessary financial, technological and capacity-building resources are in place to drive a more sustainable and climate-resilient future.

Adaptation vs. Mitigation Climate Change Solutions
The Climate Change Dictionary | What Is Climate Finance?
"Adapting to a changing climate". Portuguese version

☑️ Test your knowledge

Reading Comprehension Quiz. Mitigate and Adapt. A Global Stocktake Analysis

Step 1 of 3

What mitigation measures does the Global Stocktake emphasise?
Skip to content